Most people mistakenly believe that their 401(k) must be invested in bank CDs, the stock market, or mutual funds. Few Investors realize that the IRS has always permitted real estate to be held inside 401(k) retirement accounts. Investments in real estate with an Individual 401(k), also known as a Solo 401(k), are fully permissible under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). IRS rules permit you to engage in almost any type of real estate investment, aside generally from any investment involving a disqualified person.
Advantages of Using a Solo 401(k) to Purchase Real Estate
Income or gains generated by a 401(k) Plan generate tax-deferred/tax-free profits. Using a Solo 401(k) Plan to purchase real estate allows the 401(k) to earn tax-free income/gains and pay taxes at a future date, rather than in the year the investment produces income.
With a Solo 401(k), you can invest tax-free and not have to pay taxes right away – or in most cases for many years allowing your retirement funds to grow tax-free! All the income or gains from your real estate deals flow though to your 401(k) account tax-free!
Types of Real Estate Investments
Below is a partial list of domestic or foreign real estate-related investments that you can make with a Solo 401(k):
- Raw land
- Residential homes
- Commercial property
- Mobile homes
- Real estate notes
- Real estate purchase options
- Tax liens certificates
- Tax deeds
Investing in Real Estate with a Solo 401(k) is Quick & Easy!
Purchasing real estate with a Solo 401(k) Plan is essentially the same as purchasing real estate personally.
- Set-up a Solo 401(k) Plan with the IRA Financial Group.
- Identify the investment property.
- Purchase the investment property with the Solo 401(k) Plan – no need to seek the consent of the custodian with a Solo 401(k) Plan since you serve as Trustee and Plan Administrator.
- Title to the investment property and all transaction documents should be in the name of the Solo 401(k) Plan. Documents pertaining to the property investment must be signed by you as Trustee.
- All expenses paid from the investment property go through the Solo 401(k) Plan. Likewise, all rental income checks must be deposited directly in to the Solo 401(k) Plan bank account. No 401(k) related investment checks should be deposited into your personal accounts.
- All income or gains from the investment flow through to your 401(k) tax-free!
Structuring the Purchase of Real Estate with a Solo 401(k) Plan
When using a Solo 401(k) to make a real estate investment there are a number of ways you can structure the transaction:
1. Use your Solo 401(k) funds to make 100% of the investment
If you have enough funds in your Solo 401(k) to cover the entire real estate purchase, including closing costs, taxes, fees, insurance, you may make the purchase outright using your Solo 401(k). All ongoing expenses relating to the real estate investment must be paid out of your Solo 401(k) bank account. In addition, all income or gains relating to your real estate investment must be returned to your Solo 401(k) bank account.
2. Partner with Family, Friends, Colleagues
If you don’t have sufficient funds in your Solo 401(k) to make a real estate purchase outright, your Solo 401(k) can purchase an interest in the property along with a family member (non-disqualified person), friend, or colleague. The investment would not be made into an entity owned by the 401(k) owner, but instead would be invested directly into the property.
For example, your Solo 401(k) Plan could partner with a family member, friend, or colleague to purchase a piece of property for $150,000. Your Solo 401(k) Plan could purchase an interest in the property (i.e. 50% for $75,000) and your family member, friend, or colleague could purchase the remaining interest (i.e. 50% for $75,000).
All income or gain from the property would be allocated to the parties in relation to their percentage of ownership in the property. Likewise, all property expenses must be paid in relation to the parties’ percentage of ownership in the property. Based on the above example, for a $2,000 property tax bill, the Solo 401(k) would be responsible for 50% of the bill ($1000) and the family member, friend, or colleague would be responsible for the remaining $1000 (50%).
Isn’t Partnering with a family member in a Real Estate Transaction a Prohibited Transaction?
Likely not if the transaction is structured correctly. Investing in an investment entity with a family member and investing in an investment property directly are two different transaction structures that impact whether the transaction will be prohibited under Code Section 4975. The different tax treatment is based on who currently owns the investment. Using a Solo 401(k) Plan to invest in an entity that is owned by a family member who is a disqualified person will likely be treated as a prohibited transaction. However, partnering with a family member that is a non-disqualified person directly into an investment property would likely not be a prohibited transaction. Note: If you, a family member, or other disqualified person already owns a property, then investing in that property with your Solo 401(k) would be prohibited.
3. Borrow Money for your Solo 401(k)
You may obtain financing through a loan or mortgage to finance a real estate purchase using a Solo 401(k). Solo 401(k) participants can also borrow up to either $50,000 or 50% of their account value – whichever is less to help finance a real estate investment.
If using financing through a third-party loan to purchase real estate (other than a loan from the 401(k) Plan), one important point must be considered when selecting this option:
- Loan must be non-recourse – A “prohibited transaction” is a transaction that, directly or indirectly involves the loan of money or other extension of credit between a plan and a disqualified person. Normally, when an individual purchases real estate with a mortgage, the traditional loan provides for recourse against the borrower (i.e., personal liability for the mortgage). However, if the 401(k) Plan purchases real estate and secures a mortgage for the purchase, the loan must be non-recourse; otherwise there will be a prohibited transaction. A non-recourse loan only uses the property for collateral. In the event of default, the lender can collect only the property and cannot go after the 401(k) Plan itself.
Note: Unlike a Self-Directed IRA LLC, pursuant to Internal Revenue Code Section 514(c)(9), in the case of a Solo 401(k) Plan, the Unrelated Business Income Tax (UBTI) does not apply when using nonrecourse leverage as part of a real estate transaction (unrelated debt-financed income – UDFI). Therefore, unlike a Self-Directed IRA LLC, using a Solo 401K to finance a real estate investment will not trigger UBTI – which imposes a tax in the range of 40% for 2017 on all income/gains relating to the debt financed portion of the investment.