Jun 26

When Using ROBS to Fund a Business, What Type of Corporation Should You Use?

The Internal Revenue Code and ERISA law require the use of a “C” Corporation for using the Rollover Business Start-up solution (ROBS) to acquire stock in a business. The reason for this is that Section 407(d)(1) of ERISA defines the term “employer security,” in part, to mean a security issued by an employer of employees by the plan, or by an affiliate of such employer. Under section 407(d)(5) of ERISA, the term “qualifying employer security” includes an employer security, which has been understood to mean stock. The term “stock” is not defined in Title I of ERISA, however, most tax commentators believe this to mean the stock of a corporation and not an interest in a limited liability company or partnership. The use of an S Corporation for this structure is not permitted because a qualified plan cannot be an S Corporation shareholder. Generally only individuals are permitted to be S Corporation shareholders.

When Using ROBS to Fund a Business, What Type of Corporation Should You Use?

Please contact one of our ROBS Experts at 800-472-0646 for more information.
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Mar 05

Can You Purchase Stock in a Personal Business with Your 401k?

Yes. The Internal Revenue Code and ERISA have firmly codified the ability to use retirement funds to invest in the stock of a sponsoring company as long as certain IRS and ERISA rules are followed.  One way to use 401(k) funds to invest in a business is by utilizing the Rollover as Business Startup, or ROBS.

Internal Revenue Code Section 4975(c) includes a list of transactions that the IRS deems “prohibited”. However, Internal Revenue Code Section 4975(d) lists a number of exemptions to the prohibited transaction rules. Specifically Internal Revenue Code Section 4975(d)(13) lists an exemption for any transaction which is exempt from section 406 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) by reason of Section 408(e) of such Act.

ERISA Section 408(e) provides that ERISA Section 406 shall not apply to the purchase by the Plan of qualifying employer securities (as defined in ERISA Section 407(d)(5)), provided that: (1) the acquisition or sale is for adequate consideration; (2) no commission is charged with respect to the acquisition or sale; and (3) the plan is an eligible individual account plan (as defined in ERISA Section 407(d)(3)). A 401(k) plan fits in to this definition.

Pursuant to ERISA Section 406, the acquisition or sale must be for “adequate consideration”. Except in the case of a “marketable obligation”, adequate consideration for this purpose means a price not less favorable than the price determined under ERISA Section 3(18), subject to a requirement that the acquisition or sale must be for “adequate consideration,” An exchange of company stock between the plan and its employer-sponsor would be a prohibited transaction, unless the requirements of ERISA Section 408(e) are met.

The exemptions in Internal Revenue Code 4975(d) shall not apply to items described in Internal Revenue Code Section 4975(f)(6). Internal Revenue Code Section 4975(f)(6)(A)) states that the exemption of Internal Revenue Code Section 4975(d) shall not apply i n the case of a trust described in Internal Revenue Code Section 401(a), which is part of a plan providing contributions or benefits for employees Can You Purchase Stock in a Personal Business with Your 401k?some or all of whom are owner-employees (other than paragraphs (9) and (12)) shall not apply to a transaction in which the plan directly or indirectly— (i) lends any part of the corpus or income of the plan to, (ii) pays any compensation for personal services rendered to the plan to, or ( iii) acquires for the plan any property from or sells any property to, any such owner-employee, a member of the family of any such owner-employee, or any corporation in which any such owner-employee owns, directly or indirectly, 50 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 50 percent or more of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of the corporation. Therefore, since the Plan will be purchasing “qualified employer securities” directly from the newly formed corporation, the purchase of corporate stock will not be treated as a prohibited transaction pursuant to Internal Revenue Code Section 4975.

ERISA Section 407(b)(1) generally places limitations on the acquisition and holding of Qualifying Employer Securities (normally 10% of plan assets). However, the Section includes an exception for “eligible individual account plans” (ERISA 407(b)(1)). As set forth in ERISA Section 407(d)(3), a qualified profit sharing plan is included in the definition of “eligible individual account plans”. In addition, pursuant to ERISA Section 404(a)(2), these plans do not violate ERISA’s diversification and, to the extent it requires diversification, prudence requirements.

The IRA Financial Group’s retirement tax professionals will work with you directly to develop an IRS and ERISA fully compliant business acquisition or funding solution customized to your individual business, financial, and retirement needs.

For more information about using your 401(k) to invest in a business, please contact us @ 800.472.0646.

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Jul 08

What Type of Corporation Do You Use when Using ROBS?

The Internal Revenue Code and ERISA law require the use of a “C” Corporation for using retirement funds to acquire stock in a business. The reason for this is that Section 407(d)(1) of ERISA defines the term “employer security,” in part, to mean a security issued by an employer of employees by the plan, or by an affiliate of such employer. Under section 407(d)(5) of ERISA, the term “qualifying employer security” includes an employer security, which has been understood to mean stock. The term “stock” is not defined in Title I of ERISA, however, most tax commentators believe this to mean the stock of a corporation and not an interest in a limited liability company or partnership. The use of an S Corporation for this structure is not permitted because a qualified plan cannot be an S Corporation shareholder. Generally only individuals are permitted to be S Corporation shareholders.

What is a C Corporation?

A C Corporation is a business term that is used to distinguish this type of entity from others, as its profits are taxed separately from its owners under sub-chapter C of the Internal Revenue Code. A C corporation is owned by shareholders who must elect a board of directors to make business decisions and oversee policies. A C Corporation provides its shareholders with limited liability protection. Thus, the C Corporation’s shareholders would not stand personally liable for debts incurred by the C Corporation. They cannot be sued individually for corporate wrongdoings.

What Type of Corporation Do You Use when Using ROBS?Will I pay more tax if my business is set-up as a C Corporation?

In general, a C corporation can be used to split the corporate profits among the owners and the corporation. This can result in overall tax savings. The tax rate for a corporation is usually less than that for an individual, especially for the first $50,000 of taxable income. In addition, a C Corporation can deduct the cost of business expenses, such as salary, thus, further reducing the company’s taxable income. For example, the operators of the corporation may withdraw reasonable salaries, which are deductible by the corporation. These salaries are therefore free from tax at the corporate level (though the recipients will have to pay income tax, and both recipients and the business will have to pay FICA tax, on them). In some cases, the entire net profit of a C Corporation may be offset by salaries to the shareholders, so that no corporate income tax is due.

Do I need an independent appraisal for the purchase of the new corporation stock?

Yes. Pursuant to ERISA rules, a 401(k) Plan is permitted to acquire “qualified employer security” provided that the acquisition or sale is for adequate consideration. In the October 1, 2008 Memorandum, the IRS stated that an exchange of company stock between the plan and the new company sponsor would be a prohibited transaction, unless the requirements of ERISA Section 408(e) are met. Therefore, valuation of the capitalization of the new company is a relevant issue. Since the company is new, there could be a question of whether it is indeed worth the value of the tax-deferred assets for which it was exchanged. If the transaction has not been for adequate consideration, it would have to be corrected. On August 27, 2010, on the public phone forum, the IRS reaffirmed their position on the need for an independent appraisal to value the purchased corporate stock. The IRA Financial Group will assist you in identifying an independent third-party business appraisal or CPA to help value the stock of the new or existing company.

For more information about using ROBS to start your business, please contact us @ 800.472.0646.

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